- •In 1863, GQ Colton founded his Colton Dental Association for dental extractions.
- •His franchisees and their imitators administered hypoxic nitrous-oxide anesthetics.
- •Hours to days after this hypoxia, some patients developed altered mental status.
- •Some brain-damaged patients were subsequently admitted to insane or lunatic asylums.
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- The 2016 Lewis H. Wright Memorial Lecture: America's doctor anaesthetists (1862-1936)—turning a tide of asphyxiating waves.J Anesth Hist. 2016; 3: 12-18https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janh.2016.12.001
- Fun in nitrous oxide; odd antics under its administration—the phenomenal case of Hannah Deal.in: The Fort Wayne [IN] Daily Gazette. June 23, 1879: 3
- Transactions of the American Dental Association at the Nineteenth Annual Session: Held at Niagara Falls, Commencing on the 5th of August, 1879.Knight & Leonard, Chicago, IL1880
Leek GW. All newspapers…insane asylums are full of people who took gas…. San Francisco Chronicle. May 18, 1889:3.
- Social Transformation of American Medicine.Basic Books, New York, NY1982
- The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity.W W Norton & Co, New York, NY1997
- Dent Surg Microcosm. 1892; 2: 80
☆Neither author has any intellectual, ethical, or financial conflicts of interest.