Intravenous and Colonic Ether

Profiles Ludwig Burkhardt and Hermann Kiimmell and the beginnings of intravenous anesthesia.

Edwin S. Munson, M.D's overview of intravenous ether anethesia.

James Tayloe Gwathmey's work achieved recognition after the turn of the century when he changed the anesthetics, modified the technique and molded the entire specialty,

Gwathmey and Lundy, discuss their opinions on Colonic Ether Analgesia for Labor and Delivery.

Cultural influence impacted the development of anesthesia for labor and delivery.